Current Issue

2022: Volume 3, Issue 1

Wild Edible Vegetables Used for Health Benefit by Rural People of Gondia District in Maharashtra State, India

Tulsidas Nimbekar*, Dilip Sanghi

Shri Laxmanrao Mankar Institute of Pharmacy, Amgaom Gondia, Maharashtra, India - 441902

*Corresponding author: Tulsidas Nimbekar, Shri Laxmanrao Mankar Institute of Pharmacy, Amgaom Gondia, Maharashtra, India – 441902, Tel: 9326861962; Email: [email protected]

Citation: Nimbekar T, et al. (2022). Wild Edible Vegetables Used for Health Benefit by Rural People of Gondia District in Maharashtra State, India. Traditional Medicine. 3(1):9.

Received: April 21, 2022

Published: August 13, 2022

ABSTRACT

The population outburst resulted into an inadequate accessibility of food resources such as cereals, pulses, vegetables and fruits to the individual. Documentation and spreading responsiveness of utilization of wild edible plants in the regular family diet may be a solution to overcome this alarming problem. Wild edible vegetables play an important contribution to the livelihood of the households who gather and consume them. As per the traditional knowledge, these wild edible vegetables or plants play a significant task in the sustenance of forest people residing in forested areas. A scientific study of edible wild plants is important for pin pointing the potential sources which could be even utilized at the time of scarcity and cultivated as well as a source of food for the budding population. In respect of this, the present work was undertaken which documents as many as 50 plant species that easily found in the surveyed area. The area for wild edible vegetables having some medicinal potential has been carried out in 12 villages of Gondia district, Maharashtra, India. The study showed that the plants used are either eaten raw, cooked by boiling in water, frying in oil or baked to be served as dishes such as stew, salad as hot drink and as nutraceuticals.

Keywords: Wild edible plant, Gondia, Forest dwellers and Traditional knowledge

INTRODUCTION

Domesticated vegetables have been selectively bred for look, production quality, taste, length of storage, and qualities other than nutrition and these vegetables sold in the market are exposed to various pesticides, herbicides, and range of other chemicals and they have been genetically modified or irradiated. At this context safety of eating is a general concern; wild foods don’t have these problems.

Wild plants are reported to be edible and easily available even during adverse conditions like drought and scarcity. Such wild species are accepted like other cultivated species and they play an important role in solving the various food troubles of the world. India is in the second position in population as well as vegetable production as per the requirements [1]. Forest resources, mainly plants and plant products, have an important place in the daily life of tribals and other forest dwellers. Forest provides food as Forest products (NTFPS) that are necessary not only for meeting their own requirements, but these are also a potential source of their income for livelihood [2].

Though plants have been used as a source of food, fodder, shelter, clothing, medicine and a verity of helpful commodities from earliest time, the value of wild edible plants in food security has not been given adequate attention in India [3]. Wild edible plants are the precious gift from our nature and most of the ethnic communities strongly depend on it for their day to day life. Wild vegetables are available locally and therefore inexpensive for low income sectors of the economy. They are good sources of important nutrients, which play significant roles in nutrition, food security and serve as supplements for the management of nutrition related illnesses. Foods plants are not only supplement to the food quality, but also an important option during starvation for survival and thus makes significant contribution to the human nutrition throughout the year [4,5].

Gondia district of Maharashtra state is well-known for the forest resources with abundant amount of flora and fauna. During the year 2020-21, an estimated 2833 sq. km of area was under forest which constituted 50.22% of the total area. Forest resources contribute significantly to the economy of the district. Nagzira, 152 sq. km and Navegaon National park, 133 sq. km, Nawegaon Wildlife Sanctuary (123 sq km), New Nagzira Wildlife Sanctuary (151 sq km) and Koka Wildlife Sanctuary (97 sq km) are the national reserve forests [6,7]. These local people are still depending on wild food resources throughout monsoon season and consume with conventional way. During the first spell of rain in June –July leafy vegetables are available on a large scale.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Study Area

Gondia is an eastern district of Maharashtra and lies between 20.39 to 21.380 North and 79.27 to 82.420 East having total forest area of 2151.15 sq.km. The district is divided into eight talukas where most of the residents depends upon agriculture amongst fifteen villages were preferred from district which are in association with the dense forest. The vegetation of the district is interestingly diverse, as on north eastern part of district Satpuda hilly ranges are running, apart from this district has protected areas like Navegaon National Park and Nagzira Wild life Sanctuary which has been declared as Tiger Reserve by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) and 46th of the country on the date of 7th September 2013 [8,9].

Field Survey

The detailed field survey was carried out by four members from our Institute during the period of May 2020 to April 2021. During this period field tours were conducted in different seasons of the year. During the survey, data on local name, edible parts, available period, habit and habitat, phenology and fruiting period and nature of uses were collected and recorded. The data had been collected from the local people who have a strong connection with traditional agriculture for their day-to-day needs. The Primary data was collected through Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), group discussion, semi-structured interviews and household survey. The collected plant parts were identified using relevant scientific literature [10,11].

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The present study focuses mainly on some of the plants reported from forest areas of Gondia district for their alternative uses as nutritionally useful plants and reveals the data obtained during the study. A total of 50 plant species belonging to 28 families have been recorded in the present study (Table 1).

Table 1. Nutritionally important plant with their family and vernacular name. (11-15)

Sr.No

Vernacular Name

Botanical name

Family

Part used

Medicinal and nutritional uses

1

Aaghada

Achyarnthes aspera

Amaranthaceae

 

Whole Shrub

In traditional medicinal system, A. aspera is known for diuretic and hepatoprotective properties and used to cure several diseases viz., malarial fever, dysentery, asthma, hypertension and diabetics. Dry seeds are Eaten as raw.

2

Dumber sati

 

Agaricus bisporus

 

Agaricaceae

 

Mushroom

Agaricus mushroom is used for cancer, type 2 diabetes, high cholesterol, “hardening of the arteries” (arteriosclerosis), ongoing liver disease, bloodstream disorders, and digestive problems. Fruiting bodies are eaten as vegetables

3

Patur

 

Alternathera sessilis

 

Amaranthaceae

 

Leaves

Treat hepatitis, tight chest, bronchitis, asthma and other lung troubles, to stop bleeding and as a hair tonic. Leafy shoots are eaten as vegetables

4

Rajgira

 

Amaranthus cruentus

 

Amaranthaceae

 

Leaves

Low levels of healthy red blood cells (anemia) due to iron deficiency, Stomach ulcers, Diarrhea and in Swollen mouth and throat.

5

Matbhaji

 

Amaranthus spinosus

 

Amaranthaceae

 

Leaves

The root paste with equal volume of honey controls vomiting, when mixed with sugar and water controls Dysentery. Among vegetables, amaranths are rich sources for micronutrients and dietary minerals.

6

Khedabhaji

Amaranthus spinosus

Amaranthaceae

Leaves

It is used to treat diarrhoea. The root is also used for toothaches. leaves are considered a good emollient and applied externally in cases of ulcerated mouths, eczema, burns, wounds, boils, earache and hemorrhoids.

7

Chaulayi Bhaji

Amaranthus viridis

Amaranthaceae

 

Leaves

The young leaves and stem of the plant use as a vegetable. Useful as an Antioxidant

8

Suran

Amorphophallus paeoniifolius

Araceae

Rhizomes

Commonly available tuber in South India, widely used in folk medicine for treatment of acute rheumatism, tumors, lung swelling, asthma, vomiting, and abdominal pain. 

9

Shepu

Anethum graveolens 

Apiaceae

 

  • Leaves
  • Nutrients including Vitamin A, C, D, riboflavin, manganese, folate, iron, copper, potassium, magnesium, zinc and dietary fibres. Thus, imbued with these nutrients and antioxidants.

10

Washte

Bambusa arundinacea

Poaceae

Stems

In Ayurveda for the treatment of cough, skin diseases, wounds, digestive disorders, nausea, gynecological disorders and fever. The decoction of leaf and node portion use as a traditional medicine. The young shoot of this plant is the good source of carbohydrate.

11

Koilari

 

Bauhinia purpurea

Caesalpiniaceae

 

Leaves

Antibacterial activity, diarrheal condition. Flowers are eaten as vegetables in the form of "Bhaje" (Cooked) & Fruits are eaten as vegetables

12

Khaperkhuti

Boerthavia diffusa

Nyctaginaceae

 

Leaves

Punarnava is mainly used to treat accumulation of fluids (Oedematous conditions) in the body. It is considered to be an effective "Rasayana". It is also used in the treatment of anemia and liver diseases as recommended by Indian Ayurveda.

13

Navalakol 

 Brassica oleracea

Crucifarae

Fruits

It is used in the treatment of gout and rheumatism. The leaves can be used as a poultice to cleanse infected wounds. Also as Cardiotonic, Stomachic.

14

Jangli Tur

Cajanus scarabaeoides

Leguminosae

Fruits

Uses for treatment of anemia, smallpox, gonnorhoea, rinder pest, sores, dysentery, cholera, swelling and different inflammatory disorders 

15

Bahava

Cassia fistula

 

Caesalpiniaceae

 

Flowers

laxative, anti-inflammatory, for swelling. Fruits used for asthma, diabetes and

eczema.

16

Tarota

Cassia Tora

Caesalpinaceae

Leaves

According to Ayurveda the leaves and seeds are acrid, laxative, antiperiodic, anthelmintic, ophthalmic, liver tonic, cardiotonic and expectorant.

17

Kuradu

Celosia argentea

Amaranthaceae

Leaves

Used in traditional medicine for the treatment of headache, sores, ulcers, eye inflammations, skin eruption, painful menstruation and carpal tunnel syndrome.

18

Awadi-dhawadi

 

Chenopodium album

 

Chenopodiaceae

 

Leaves

Used as anthelmintic, antiphlogistic, antirheumatic, contraceptive, laxative, odontalgic etc. It is also used in the treatment of rheumatism, bug bites, sunstroke, urinary problems, skin problems etc.

19

Tendli

Coccinia grandis

Cucurbitaceae

Fruits

The fruit are used to make medicine. People take ivy gourd for diabetes, gonorrhea, and constipation. Some people apply ivy gourd leaves directly to the skin for wounds. Ivy gourd fruit and leaves are used as a vegetable.

20

Dhopa

Colocasia esculenta

Araceae

Leaves

It has been utilized for treatment of various ailments such as asthma, arthritis, diarrhea, internal hemorrhage, neurological disorders, and skin disorders. The juice of corm is widely used for treatment of body ache and baldness.

21

Kena Leaf

Commelina benghalensis

Commelinaceae

Leaves

Laxative, diuretic, carminative and antiinflammatory.

Leaf use in burn.

22

Chechbhaji

Corchorus aestuans

Tiliaceae

Leaves

Roots or leaves is taken for the treatment of gonorrhea, seeds are used for the treatment of stomach-ache and pneumonia

23

 Chinchnuk

Corchorus olitorius

Malvaceae

Fruits

The leaves are demulcent, diuretic, febrifuge and

tonic. Richness in potassium, vitamin B6, iron, vitamin A and vitamin C

24

Kevkanda

 

Costus speciosus

Zingiberaceae

 

Rhizomes

Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. It is also use as Ayurvedic medicine hence uses to treat fever, rash, asthma, bronchitis, and intestinal worms.

25

Pakanbhed

 

Cryptocoryne retrospiralis

 

Araceae

 

Leaves

It useful in arthritis, Antibacterial Activity, for the treatment of diarrhoea, fever and jaundice, burns and boils.

26

Mataru

Dioscorea bulbifera

Dioscoreaceae

Fruits

Used in the treatment of Piles, dysentery, syphilis, ulcers, cough, leprosy, diabetes, asthma, and cancer. Tubers are eaten as a vegetable.

27

Umber

Ficus racemosa

Moraceae

Fruits

The leaves are used in the treatment of diarrhoea

The root is chewed as a treatment for tonsillitis.

28

Pipal

Ficus religiosa

Moraceae

Leaves

Used in asthma, laxative, purgative, neuralgia and inflammation.

29

Ambadi

Hibiscus Sabdariffa

 

Leaves

Used for the treatment of high blood pressure, liver diseases and fevers. In large amounts, hibiscus tea acts as a mild laxative. In traditional treatment for high blood pressure, cholesterol reduction. It useful in heat control

30

Kuda

 

Holarrhena pubescens

 

Apocynaceae

Flowers

It has antibacterial and Amoebicidal properties. Also

use in piles as well as in general bleeding. Several

Indian tribes use this plant in diabetes.

31

Karmotabhaji

 

Ipomoea aquatica

Convolvulaceae

 

Leaves

 It is used against piles, and nosebleeds, as an anthelmintic, and to treat high blood pressure.

32

Popati

 

Lablab purpureus

 

Fabaceae

 

Fruits

It is antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, tonic, aphrodisiac, hypocholesterolemic, galactagogue, has antispasmodic properties and is an appetite suppressants.

33

Lauki

Lagenaria siceraria

Cucurbitaceae

Fruits

Reduces stress, Benefits the heart, Helps in weight loss, Helps in treating sleeping disorders, Prevents premature greying of hair, Helps in digestion and Benefits the skin

34

Pathari

Launea procumbens

Asteraceae 

Leaves

Used as a food and washing agent, rheumatism, galactogogues, and increases milk production. Eye redness and itchiness and also traditionally used in kidney (painful urination), liver and sexual diseases like gonorrhea.

35

Kavatha

Limonia acidssima

Rutaceae

Fruits

It is used as tonic for heart and lungs, the unripe fruit is used as anti-diarrhoeal, leaves of wood apple are anti-diabetic, fruit pulp is used in the treatment of sore throat etc.

36

Dodaka

Luffa acutangula 

 

Cucurbitaceae

Fruits

rich in a vast array of essential components like dietary fibers, water content, vitamin A, vitamin C, iron, magnesium and vitamin B6. They are naturally low in calorie content, unhealthy saturated fats and cholesterol.

37

Pudina

 

Mentha spicata

 

Lamiaceae

 

Leaves

It is useful in stomach disorder, carminative, tonic, stomach tonic, anti-cough, anti-seizure, astringent, analgesic and sedative.

38

Katwal

Momordica dioica     

Cucurbitaceace

Fruits

Unripe Fruits are eaten as vegetables, Diabetics, laxative, hepatoprotective and diuretics.

39

Shevga

Moringa oleifera

Moringaceae

Fruits

Used as cardiac and possess antitumor, antipyretic, antiepileptic, antiinflammatory, antiulcer, antispasmodic, diuretic, antihypertensive, cholesterol lowering, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities.

40

Aaratfari

Olax psittacorum

Olacaceae

Leaves

In Ayurvedic medicine, the bark is used in anaemia and as a supporting drug in diabetes; also in the treatment of fever.

41

Ambuti

Oxalis corniculata

Oxalidaceae

Leaves

This plant is edible and it is used as salad. This plant is anti-scorbutic and used in the treatment of scurvy. This herb is anti-inflammatory, anthelminthic, diuretic, febrifuge, relaxant, stomachic, astringent, analgesic and styptic in nature.

42

Bhuiawala

Phyllanthus amarus

Euphorbiaceae

Whole shrub

It is an important plant of Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine which is used in the problems of stomach, genitourinary system, liver, kidney and spleen.

43

Kapalfodi

Physalis Pubescens

Solanaceae

Whole shrub

The whole plant is antipyretic, depurative, diuretic, pectoral, vermifuge. A decoction is used in the treatment of abscesses, coughs, fevers, sore throat etc. An infusion of the whole plant is used as a narcotic

44

Owabhaji

 

Plectranthus amboinicus

Lamiaceae

Leaves

It is used in herbal medicines for the treatment of various disorders such as asthma, flu, eczema, and cardiovascular disorders.

45

Ghorbhaji

 

Portulaca oleracea

 

Portulacaceae

Leaves

In folk medicine, acting as a febrifuge, antiseptic, vermifuge. It exhibits a wide range of pharmacological effects, including antibacterial, antiulcerogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and wound-healing properties.

46

Sherdira

 

Smilax zeylenica

Smilacaceae

 

Stems

It useful blood purification Root and rhizome has

antirhumatic, Antioxidant activity. It is also used in the treatment of venereal diseases.

47

Palakbhaji

Spinacia oleracea

 Amaranthaceae

  • Leaves
  • Spinach is high in vitamin A, vitamin C. This vitamin is a powerful antioxidant that promotes skin health and immune function. Vitamin K1. This vitamin is essential for blood clotting, Folic acid, Iron and Calcium

48

Anas sati

 

Termitomyces heimii

 

Agaricaceae

 

Mushroom

Bioactive components in mushrooms have potential uses as antioxidants, immunomodulators, antitumors, and antimicrobials. Termitomyces also has a potential for treating neurodegenerative disorders. Fruiting bodies are eaten as vegetables

49

Undirkani

Theriophonum indicum

Araceae

Leaves

Leaves are eaten as Vegetables.

50

Methi bhaji

Trigonella foenum-graecum

Fabaceae

Leaves

 

Fenugreek leaves are eaten in India as a vegetable. It is taken by mouth for digestive problems such as loss of appetite, upset stomach, constipation, inflammation of the stomach (gastritis). Fenugreek is also used for diabetes, painful menstruation, polycystic ovary syndrome, and obesity.

 

Most of these plants are seasonal and available in specific duration of the year. Remaining plants which are perennial and available throughout the year are also utilized in particular month of the year due to the plant part which is used in diet available for few months only. Many plants have been consumed for dual purpose i.e. as a food and for medicinal purposes. Out of total plant parts, around 54 % leaves, which are followed by 24 % of fruits, 4 % flowers, 4 % Rhizome, 4 % mushroom, 6% whole shrub and 4% stems of plant are used by the people of Gondia district. The details of plant parts used are presented in graphical form in Figure 1 and table 2.

Figure 1: Analysis of usable parts of edible wild plants of the studied area

Table 2: Usable parts of edible wild plants of the studied area

 

Part Used

No. of plant species

 

Percentages

Whole Shrub

03

6

Mushroom

02

4

Leaves

27

54

Rhizomes

2

4

Stems

2

4

Fruits

12

24

Flowers

2

4

Total

50

 

 

 

Most of the tribal communities has good knowledge of edible plants available in surrounding forest and know how to eat the edible part and discard the other parts. This traditional knowledge of consuming wild plants is passed on orally from one generation to another and need to be safeguarded. Thus, wild edible plants can act as a link between habitat, season of availability, local people and culture associated with tribal people [12].

All the plants are very important for nutrition’s purpose and improvement of health. Among these plants species most of the plants are used for medicine purposes, like, Diabetics, Malaria, Jaundice, Stomach disorder, Cough, Piles, Amebic stool, Gastritis, Arthritis, blood purification, Cyst, Worm, etc. Different dishes prepared by them having medicinal properties [13,14].

CONCLUSION

The final conclusion of the present study is that, there are plenty of plants are available in the forest of Gondia district which could be utilized in the diet as an alternative food having medicinal and nutritional value. However, there is lack of scientific studies on these plants especially their nutrients and anti-nutrients composition. Hence it is essential to conduct a detailed nutritional and cultivation related investigation of some of potential plants. It has been also observed that traditional knowledge of wild food is a sharply declining due to rapid depletion of forest cover and our education system. It is not focus on the traditional knowledge which has been established in our social and cultural system. It is essential to educate teachers on this platform to teach the students. The new generation will be interested to study the plants and local resources.

REFERENCES

  1. Zode Ravindra, Walay Tagade, Mahesh Kawale, Chaturvedi Alka. (2020). Potential use of wild edible plants from Arjuni/ morgaon tehsil of gondia district (MS), India. International Journal of Researches in Biosciences, Agriculture and Technology. 1(8):103-118.
  2. Reddy KN, Pattanai KC, Redd, CS, Raju, VS. (2007). Traditional knowledge on wild plant in Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Traditional knowledge. 6:223-229.
  3. Nimbekar TP, Wanjari BE, Nema MV, Bhiskute SM. (2012). Traditional Knowledge on Antimicrobial activity of some ethnomedicinal plants used by tribes of Gondia District in Maharashtra State. Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 4(3):147-151.
  4. K.C. Kiran, C. Dhanush, C.V Gajendra, B.M. Reddy, (2019). Diversity and Seasonal Availability of Potential Wild Edible Plants from Vidarbha Region of Maharashtra State, India. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Science. 8(2):1434-1446.
  5. Jadhav VD, Mahadkar SD, Valvi SR. (2011). Documentation and ethnobotanical survey of wild edible plants from Kolhapur district. Recent Research in Science and Technology. 3(12):58-63.
  6. Patle CK. (2015). Ethenobotanical studies on wild edible plants of gond, halba and kawar tribel of salekasa taluka, gondia district Maharashtra state, India. International Research Journal of Pharmacy. 6(8):512-518.
  7. Tulsidas P. Nimbekar, Anil Sao, Shishupal Bodhankar. (2020). Traditional Knowledge on Potential Treatment Options in Plants for COVID-19. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Research. 18(3):96-103.
  8. Tulsidas Nimbekar, Ajay Dongarwar, Damodar Goupale. (2020). Traditional Knowledge of Medicinal Herbs of Gondia District for Beauty Care: An Ethno-Botanical Survey, Saudi Journal of Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 10(2):435-437.
  9. Kailash S. Lokhande. (2020). Ethnobotanical Survey on Wild Edible Plants Used by Tribals & Rural People of Arjuni/Mor Taluka, Gondia District, Maharashtra State, India. Advances in Zoology and Botany. 8(3):209-217.
  10. Sawarkar Prafulla. (2017). Wild Food Diversity of Nawegaon-Nagzira Tiger Reserve in Gondia-Bhandara district of Maharashtra, India, Int. J. of Life Sciences. 5(4):620-626.
  11. Turendrakumar K. Lilhare, Dipak K. Koche & Mahesh V. Kawale. (2017). Medicinally important Wild Edible Plants of Eastern Vidarbha, Hislopia Journal. 10(1):73-88.
  12. Nimbekar TP, Katolkar PP, Wanjari BE, Nema MV, Patil AT. (2011). Traditional knowledge of medicinal plants of Gondia district in Maharashtra state: An ethno-botonical survey. International Journal of Herbal Medicine and Toxicology. 5(2):9-17.
  13. Sawarkar PU, Kulkarni DK. (2015). Wild food Resources of Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve in Chandrpur district of Maharashtra, India Indian Journal of Fundamental and applied life sciences. 5(4):76-83.
  14. Bhogaokar Prabha Y, Marathe Vishal, Prachi P. Kshirsagar. (2010). Documentation of Wild Edible Plants of Melghat Forest, Dist. Amravati, Maharashtra State, India. Ethno botanical leaflet. 14(7):751-758.
Suggested For You
Creative Commons License

Open Access by Magnus Med Club Ltd is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Based On a Work at magnusmedclub.com

©2018 Magnus Med Club Ltd. All rights Reserved. Traditional Medicine is an Independent Peer-Reviewed Traditional Medicine Journal. Terms of ServicePrivacy Policy